with 77.2 million individuals diagnosed with pre-diabetes, looks like India aims to win the race to become the number one country to have the most
diabetics in the world . being one of the most chronic metabolic conditions, diabetes mellitus involves major alterations in glucose metabolism along
with disturbances in protein and fat metabolism. hyperglycaemia, high blood glucose,results from defects in insulin secretion action.diabetes is fuether classified
in to different types and one such important type is type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes and in more than 90 percent of diabetics, this os the cause!

what is diabetes Mellitus ?

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder.it occurs when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it makes.
insulin is a hormone.it controls the amount of sugar (called glucose) in your blood . a high blood sugar level can cause problems in many parts of your body.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus –

  • type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

if you have type 1 diabetes mellitus , your body does not make insulin. it usually starts when you are a child or young adult ,but it can occur at any age. it is treated
by taking daily insulin shots or using an insulin pump and by following a special meal plan. about 5 to 10 percent of cases of diabetes are type 1

  • type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

if you have this type of diabetes, your body makes some insuline but cannot use properly. type 2 is partially preventable and is typically brought on by poor diet
and lock of exercise. very often heredity plays a part. it usually starts when you are over age 40,but it can happen earlier. it is treated with exercise, weight loss, and special meal planning. people withtype 2 diabetes may need insulin,but in most cases medications given in pills (called hypoglycemics) are prescribed if diet and exercise alone do not control the disease.type 2 is most common type of diabetes.

how does diabetes affect my body?

when diabetes is not well-cotrolled, the sugar level in your blood sugar up.this is alled hyperglycemia. high blood sugar can cause damage to many part of your body

  1. kidneys
  2. heart
  3. blood vessels
  4. eyes
  5. feet
  6. nerves
  7. high blood pressure

causes of type 2 diabetes

diabetes causes very depending on your genetic makeup, family history,ethnicity,health and environmental factors. there is noommon diabetes causes that fits every type of diabetes.

  1. genetics (a family history of diabetes) indians have a high genetic risk for diabetes.
  2. obesity ( being overweight or obese)
    type 2 DM is commonly associated with obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. in all this ,insulin resistance being the primary defect known as syndrome X or metabolic syndrome.
  3. environmental factors
    lifestyle – type 2 DM is most common lifestyle disorder. today’s lifestyle full of change. type 2 DM associated with people who are obese and underactive usually they
    overeat.no exercise, no phyically actives, setting jobs, no healthy food habbits etc. these are factors effctes our daily lifestyle.
  4. age – most common seen in 40 to 45 age group of people
  5. insulin resistance

symptoms of type 2 diabetes

the onset of diabetes is marked by hyperglycemia, gluosuria (presence of glucose in the urine), polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia
(increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased appetite).
very common the early symptoms like

  • a lack of energy
  • fatigue
  • dry mouth
  • frequent urination
  • constsnt hunger
  • weight loss
  • excessive thirst
  • itchy skin
  • blurry vision
  • dehydration
  • moody and grumpy

if your blood sugar level have been high for a long time, the symptoms can be;-

  • foot pain
  • slow-healing cuts or sores
  • yeast infections
  • dark patches on your skin
  • feelings of numbness in your extremities, or neuropathy

comlications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • brain and heart diesease – all people with diabetes have an increased chance of heart disease and strokes. heart disease is the major cause of death in people with diabetes.it is important to control other risk such as high blood pressure and high fats (cholesterol), as well as blood sugar. and uncontrolled diabetes raises the risk of suffering from depression, anxiety and some other memtal disorders.
  • eye damage – it is recommended that people with diabetes see an eye doctor every year for a dilated eye exam. eye problems that can occur with diabetes inculde: cataracts-(a clouding of the lens of the eyes), glaucoma- (increased pressure in the eyes), retinopathy-(eye changes with the retina in the back of the eye).
  • hearing impairment- hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
  • kidney damage- have your urine checked for protein at least once a year. protein in the urine is a sing of kidney disease. high blood pressure might also lead to kidney disease. diabetes can damage the kidneys amd may lead to kidney faliure.
  • sexual dysfuntion- in man with diabetes, particularly those who smoke, nerve and blood vessel damage can lead to erection problems. this an usually be treated with medation. woman with diabetes may experience: a reduced sex drive ( loss of libido), less pleasure from sex, vaginal dryness, less ability to orgasm, pain during sex.
  • nerve damage- excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. this can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. left untreated, you ould lose all sense of feeling in the affeted limbs. damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diaeehea or constipation.for man , it may lead to erectile dysfunction.
  • skin conditions- diabtets may leave you more susceptible to skin problem, including bacterial and fungal infections.
  • diabetes releted foot complications- diabetic foot problems are another complication of diabtets that if not treated right can lead to more serious complications,
    resulting intoe, leg or foot amputations. the two main causes of diabetes foot complications are diabeti nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation.

if not treated , it can lead to severe complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis, macrovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemia,
gangrene, diabetic nephropathy with low (micro) to high (macro) amounts of albumin in the urine, diabetic retinopathy and lead to inceased risk to
glaucoma and cataract.

diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus

diet is an important roal to keep your heart healthy and blood sugar levels within healthy range. dietary measures are an essential part of the treatment of diabetic patients, whether they are on diet alone or on sulphonyluea drug or insulin. dietary measures should be used to control blood glucose and to minimise the risk of hypoglycaemia and to reduce the long term complications.

  • the total intake of calories is more important for a diabetic than tha exact proportions of protien, fat,and carbohydrate in the diet.
  • have smaller and frequent meals at regular intervals.
  • follow a strict diet which has low carbohydrates and fats and a limited amount of protein.
  • dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates benefit type 2 diabetes. fengreek seeds whih contain high fiber are useful to diabetis.
  • eat a lot of raw vegetables and salad before every meal to fill your stomach and satisfy your hunger.
  • simple sugars should be restricted since they are absorbed and have a high glycaemic index. avoid glycaemic peaks.
  • high protein intake helps to increase insulin production and promotes satiety. pulses are rich in protien and fibre.
  • vitamins and minerals are supplemented if needed.(especially fat soluble vitamins).
  • patients should avoid fasting and feasting.
  • try to eat five a day
  • cut down on fat
  • cut down salt
  • drink in moderation

foods to choose

healthy carbohydrates can provide you with fiber.options

  • vegetables and fruits (green leafy vegetables)
  • whole grains
  • legumes, such as beans
  • skimmed, butter milk and low fat curd or yogurt

foods with heart- healthy omega-3 fatty acids. options

  • tuna
  • salmon
  • makerel
  • sardines
  • cod

you can get healthy monounsaturates and polyunsaturated fats from a number of foods

  • olive oil
  • canola oil
  • peanut oil
  • walnut
  • almonds
  • avocados

food to avoid

  • refined cereal products like maida, rava, vermielli, pasta, noodles, spaghetti, corn flour and white bread -bad quality carbohydrates.
  • all root vegetables exept carrots (baby carrots) raw – high in simple carbs.
  • red meats like mutton, beef, pork, and all other organ meats like kidney, liver and fat , chicken with skinand egg yolk – high bad cholesteroland calorie.
  • dried fishes, prawns and crabs – high fat.
  • whole milk and whole milk produts like ghee, butter, cheese, chocolates, creams and icereams – bad fat and high calorie.
  • all junk and oily foods like fries and deep fat fried ones – bad fat and high calorie.
  • alcohol and aerated soft drinks like coca cola, pepsi and fants etc – empty calories.
  • all barkery products like cream biscuits, cakes, puffs, pizza, and burger etc- high calories and bad fat.
  • avoid dry fruits like- cashews, pistas, and nuts like – peanuts, coconut,till. instead consume tomato, ginger, garlic, onion, coriander, mint (pastes/chutneys) on
    regular basis. fruits
    include(low glycemic index) – apple, oranges, guava, sweet lime, papaya, pomegranate, watermelon, small banana (weeks once or twices),berries,pears, grapefruit, peaches, kiwi, plums.
    avoid – mangoes, black grapes, custard apple, chickoo, jackfruit, big banana

include(low glycemic index) – sprouts, cucumber, tomato, onion, radish, cabbage, green vegetables, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, snake gourd, ridge gourd, ladies finger, sweet potato, broccoli, califlower, celery,spinach, eggplant, zucchini, green pea, beans, lettuce.
avoid – potato, beetroot, baby carrot.

diet plan for diabetes

time meal

breakfast * chapathis(no oil) 2 no/ dosa (no oil) 2/ upma small cup /idli 2 to 3 no with mint chutney ( no oconut/ groundnut chutney) with sambar one cup tea/coffee/milk without sugar or
* brown bread/ vegetable sandwihes 2 slices or
* egg white only one

mid morning * skimmed butter milk or tomato juice

lunch * one small bowl salad cucumber, carrot, spinch with 1/2tsp olive oil or coconut oil before taking lunch
* chapathi 2 no/ brown rice or red rice with sambar/ dhal one small bowl and fresh low fat curd or
* chicken (50gm) /fish (50gm) with chapathi 2 and butter milk one glass

tea time * one hand full roasted channa with green tea one cup

dinner * one small bowl upma or roasted fish or roasted tofu (50gm)

bed time * one glass skimmed milk

glycemic index

  • what is glycemic index
    your blood sugar and insulin levels depend on the type of carbohydrates consumed. we know that simple carbohydrates are released more quickly
    in to blood stream than complex carbohydrates. the more quickly the carbohydrate is released in to blood stream, the higher your blood sugar and insulin levels will be.the glyemic index indicates the rates at which ertain arbohydrates are formed in to glucose and released into th blood steam. the faster the gluose is released into the bloodstream , the more the body will secrete insulin in response.


  • fruit:- apple, oranges, guava, sweet lime, papaya, pomegranate, watermelon, small banana (weeks once or twices),berries,pears, grapefruit, peaches, kiwi, plums.
  • vegetables:- sprouts, cucumber, tomato, onion, radish, cabbage, green vegetables, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, snake gourd, ridge gourd, ladies finger, sweet potato, broccoli, califlower, celery,spinach, eggplant, zucchini, green pea, beans, lettuce.
  • skimmed, butter milk and low fat curd or yogurt
  • legumes:- hikpeas, soya beans, kidney beans, black beans.
  • whole grains:- 100% whole grain bread, brown rice, otameal(non-instant)
  • all bran cereal
  • nuts:- almonds, walnuts.
  • coconut water

how to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus ?

here are some tips on how to alter your diet and lifestyle to avoid developing diabetes:

  • increase your fiber – seek to include both soluble and insoluble fiber in your daily diet. berries, nuts, vegetables and hia seeds are a great way to slip in the fiber daily. aim to inlude 40 to 50 grams of fiber in your daily regimen for every 1000 calories you eat. you may want to start tracking the foods you eat day until you are a good judge of how muh fiber and arbohydrates you are eating.
  • exerise regularly – good bye, diet soda, and every other sweet-tasting drink that mysteriously contains zero calories.
  • choose the right fats – choose the right fat means add omega3 fatty acids or essensial fatty acid .diet rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat instead of meals high in carbohydrates help to improve blood sugar control. eating fat rich foods like walnuts, sunflower seeds, soybeans, flaxseed, fish and other vegetable oils.
  • follow a plant- based, low-calorie diet
  • be active
  • sleep well
  • control your blood pressure

exercise tips for diabetes mellitus!

  • any exercies that helps you burn calories will help.
  • walking briskly is considered as one of the best exercise.
  • try to finish your exercise in one 30 minute stretch.if that is not possible, break it up .
  • warm up for 5 minutes before starting to exercise and ool down for 5 minutes after your session.
  • drink plenty of water before and after the exercise.
  • take care of your feet by wearing shoes and lean socks.check if the shoes fit you well and are comfortable.
  • check blood sugar levels regularly and note them in adiary.

what is treatment for type 2 diabetes?

  • check your blood sugar – your blood glucose number tells you how well treatment is working.
  • diet and exercise
  • weight management


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